Example: © 2006 Owner Name
Example: Unpublished Work © 2006 Owner Name
For confidential or proprietary materials, a confidentiality notice may also be provided, such as
Example: Confidential Unpublished Work © 2006 Owner Name
Position of NoticeThe copyright notice should be affixed to copies in such a way as to "give reasonable notice of the claim of copyright." The three elements of the notice should ordinarily appear together on the copies. For works published in book form, such as marketing brochures, the notice should appear on either
Page immediately following the title page,
Either side of the front or back cover, or
First or last page of the main body of the work
For single-leaf works, such as many engineering drawings, the notice may appear on the front or back. In fact, most large organizations include the copyright notice with a confidentiality warning in the title block of their internal drawings.
A properly completed application form from www.copyright.gov/forms,
A nonrefundable filing fee of $30 for each application, and
At least one nonreturnable deposit of the work being registered.
As discussed at http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl103.html designs for useful articles, such as vehicular bodies, wearing apparel, household appliances, and the like are not protected by copyright. However, the design of a useful article is subject to copyright protection to the degree that its pictorial, graphic, or sculptural features can be identified as existing independently of the utilitarian object in which they are embodied.
One of the rights accorded to the owner of copyright is the right to reproduce or to authorize others to reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords. However, this right is subject to certain limitations found in sections 107 through 118 of the copyright act (title 17, U.S. Code). One of the more important limitations is the doctrine of "fair use." This doctrine has been codified in section 107 of the copyright law which contains a list of the various purposes for which the reproduction of a particular work may be considered "fair," such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
Section 107 also sets out four factors to be considered in determining whether or not a particular use is fair:
the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
the nature of the copyrighted work;
amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
The distinction between "fair use" and infringement may be unclear and not easily defined. There is no specific number of words, lines, or notes that may safely be taken without permission. Acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission.
Although the general rule is that the person who creates a work is the author and owner of that work, there is an exception to that principle: the copyright law defines a category of works called “works made for hire.” If a work is “made for hire,” the employer, and not the employee, is considered the author. The employer may be a firm, an organization, or an individual.