From the USPTO Madrid Protocol FAQ:
What is the Madrid Protocol?
The Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks (Madrid Protocol) is an international treaty that allows a trademark owner to seek registration in any of the countries that have joined the Madrid Protocol by filing a single application, called an "international application." The International Bureau of the World Property Intellectual Organization, in Geneva, Switzerland administers the international registration system.
What countries are members of the Madrid Protocol?
As of November 2003, 61 countries have joined the Madrid Protocol [77 member countries as of September, 2004]. These countries are called "Contracting Parties." A current list of the Contracting Parties is available online at the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) website: http://www.wipo.int/madrid/en.
When does the Madrid Protocol become effective in the United States?
The Madrid Protocol goes into effect in the United States on November 2, 2003. On November 2, 2003, U.S. trademark owners will be able to submit an international application to the USPTO to forward to the International Bureau in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Trademark Act has been amended by federal legislation to add provisions for implementing the Madrid Protocol in the United States. This amending legislation is called the Madrid Protocol Implementation Act (MPIA). The USPTO has also added new rules to the Trademark Rules of Practice for documents relating to the Madrid Protocol. The MPIA and the new rules are posted on the USPTO website at: www.uspto.gov.